205 – Energy balance, nutrition, & building muscle | Layne Norton, Ph.D. (Pt.2)

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Layne Norton holds a Ph.D. in nutritional sciences and is a physique coach, natural bodybuilder, and previous guest on The Drive. In the first half of this episode, Layne dives deep into the topic of energy balance, including the role that macronutrients and calories play in weight loss. He describes how many people struggle with tracking food and calories on their own across a variety of diets and how all of this can impact nutritional habits and behaviors. In the second half of the episode, Layne discusses the importance of protein and weightlifting for improving one’s body composition and increasing muscle mass. He explains how he would prescribe different training and nutrition programs for two hypothetical clients—a 50-year-old female who is entering menopause and wants to improve her health, and a 40-to-50-year-old male who wants to maximize muscle mass. Additionally, Layne discusses a number of supplements that could potentially benefit a training program including whey protein, branch chain amino acids, creatine, nitric oxide boosters, and more.

We discuss:
0:00:00 – Intro
0:00:08 – Defining energy balance and the role of calories
0:06:16 – Defining a calorie, whether they are all created equal, and how much energy you can extract from the food you eat
0:10:57 – Factors influencing total daily energy expenditure
0:23:45 – The challenge of tracking energy expenditure accurately, and the thermic effect of different macronutrients
0:36:39 – Challenges of sustained weight loss: metabolic adaptation, set points, and more
0:43:00 – Weight loss strategies: tracking calories, cheat meals, snacks, fasting, exercise, and more
0:56:28 – Sitting in discomfort, focusing on habits, and other lessons Layne learned as a natural bodybuilder
1:07:07 – Commonalities in people who maintain long-term weight-loss
1:09:25 – Does a ketogenic diet result in greater energy expenditure?
1:22:23 – The metabolic benefits of exercise, muscle mass, and protein intake
1:28:17 – The impact of lean muscle and strength on lifespan and healthspan
1:37:03 – Hypothetical case study #1: Training program for 50-year-old female
1:41:07 – Muscle protein synthesis in a trained athlete vs. untrained individual following a resistance training program
1:47:50 – Protein and amino acids needed to build and maintain muscle mass
1:54:00 – Nutrition plan for the hypothetical 50-year-old woman starting a program to build lean muscle
2:08:53 – Dispelling myths that excess protein intake increases cancer risk through elevations in mTOR and IGF
2:18:39 – Hypothetical case study #2: Training program for a 50-year-old, trained male wanting to increase muscle mass
2:27:20 – Maximizing hypertrophy while minimizing fatigue—is it necessary to train to muscular failure?
2:32:38 – Ideal sets and reps for the hypothetical 50-year-old male interested in hypertrophy
2:39:34 – Maximizing hypertrophy by working a muscle at a long muscle length
2:41:08 – Recommended lower body exercise routines and tips about training frequency
2:47:26 – Nutrition plan for the hypothetical 50-year old male wanting to add muscle
2:52:42 – Cycling weight gain and weight loss when building lean muscle mass, and expectations for progress over time
2:58:17 – Supplements to aid in hypertrophy training

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About:

The Peter Attia Drive is a weekly, ultra-deep-dive podcast focusing on maximizing health, longevity, critical thinking…and a few other things. With over 40 million episodes downloaded, it features topics including fasting, ketosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, mental health, and much more.

Peter is a physician focusing on the applied science of longevity. His practice deals extensively with nutritional interventions, exercise physiology, sleep physiology, emotional and mental health, and pharmacology to increase lifespan (delay the onset of chronic disease), while simultaneously improving healthspan (quality of life).

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